Etawah is a city on the Yamuna River in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. It is the administrative headquarters of Etawah District. The city was an important center for the Revolt of 1857 (Allan Octavian Hume, the founder of Indian National Congress was district collector then). Also is the place of sangam or confluence between Yamuna and Chambal. It is also the site of the remains of the Great Hedge of India. Population of Etawah in 2011 census was 1,579,160.
Geography Of Etawah
Etawah was a town and district of British India, in the Agra division of the United Provinces. The town is situated on the left bank of the Yamuna, and has a station on the Indian Railway (Northern Zone), 386 km from Allahabad. Deep fissures intersect the various quarters of the town, over which broad roads connect the higher portions by bridges and embankments. Considerable trade is carried on by rail, National Highway 2 (Earlier Grand Trunk Road) and river.
The district of Etawah lies in the southwestern portion of Uttar Pradesh 26° 47″ north latitude and 72° 20″ east longitude and forms a part of the Kanpur Division. In shape it is a parallelogram with a length from north to south 70 km. and East to west 66 km. on one side and 24 km. on the other side. It is bounded on the north by the districts of Farrukhabad and Mainpuri, while the small extent of western border adjoins tahsil Bah of the Agra district. The eastern frontier marches with the district of Auraiya, and along the south lie Jalaun and the district of Gwalior, the division line being, except for a short distance, the Chambal and Yamuna rivers. The total area in 1999 is calculated to be 2434 km.
The district exhibits a striking variety of surface and scenery. The greater portion lies within the Doab or level alluvial plain between the Ganges and the Jumna. This part falls naturally into two sections, divided by the deep and fissured valley of the river Sengar. The tract to the north-east of that stream is rich and fertile, being watered by the Kanpur and Etawah branches of the Ganges canal, and other important works.
The south-western region has the same natural advantages, but possesses no great irrigation system, and is consequently less fruitful than the opposite slopes. Near the banks of the Yamuna, the plain descends into the river valley by a series of wild ravines and terraces, inhabited only by a scattered race of hereditary herdsmen. Beyond the Jamuna, a strip of land extends along the tangled gorges of the Chambal and the Kuari Nadi, far into the borders of the Gwalior state. This outlying tract embraces a series of rocky glens and mountain torrents, crowned by the ruins of native strongholds, and interspersed with narrow ledges of cultivable alluvium. The climate, once hot and sultry, has now become comparatively moist and equable under the influence of irrigation and the planting of trees.
History Of Etawah
This region is believed to be existed even in Bronze age.The earliest Aryans who lived here were Panchala.They are mentioned to have close connections with Kurus. The traditional history of the town started from a successor of King Bharat.The region also have mention in Mahabharata and Ramayana epics.
The Guptas, Kanvas, Kanishka,Naga kings ruled here.In fourth century A. D., Guptas once again established imperial unity in India.
During the whole of the ninth and tenth centuries, this region was governed by Gurjara Pratihara rulers.The conquest of Kannauj by Nagabhata II at once gave to the Pratiharas the supreme power in this regions.During the reign of Gurjara Pratihara monarch Mihir Bhoj, the region is mentioned as prosperous and safe from robbers and rich in natural resources. During the First War of Independence in 1857 serious disturbances occurred in Etawah, and the district was occupied by the Freedom Fighters from June to December; order was not completely restored till the end of 1858. The district is partly watered by branches of the Ganges canal, and is traversed throughout by the main line of the Indian railway (Northern zone) from Kanpur to Agra. Cotton, oilseeds, Ghee and other agricultural produce and a special bread of goat and buffalo are exported. Region has a 652MW Natural Gas based power generation plant however lacks manufacturing industries. Etawah is also known for its handloom products, however most of them are converted into powerlooms due to advent of technology.
Lately Etawah is also frequently mentioned in the media because it is the home town of the famous politician Shri Mulayam Singh Yadav (former defence minister and chief minister) and his son Shri Akhilesh singh yadav, who are also elected members of parliament from local constituencies.