Saharanpur is a city and a Municipal Corporation in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. It is the administrative headquarters of Saharanpur District as well as Saharanpur Division. Dating back to the Mughal period, situated close to the borders of Haryana and Uttarakhand states, and surrounded by a very fertile agricultural region famous for plentiful yields in grains and fruits, Saharanpur is now one of the most flourishing cities of Uttar Pradesh.
Saharanpur is internationally famous for its wood carving work cottage industry. It is a thriving market of local agricultural produce, including basmati rice and mangoes. A variety of agro-based industrial enterprises – such as textiles, sugar, paper and cigarette factories – are located in it.
Geography Of Saharanpur
Saharanpur is located at 29°58’N 77°33’E? / ?29.97°N 77.55°E? / 29.97; 77.55, about 140 km south-southeast from Chandigarh and 170 km north-northeast from Delhi. It has an average elevation of 269 metres (882 feet).
History Of Saharanpur
Saharanpur city, as an urban centre, was established during the Mogul period. It is located in a fertile Doab region, that was forested till the medieval period, but in which human habitation can be traced as far back as 2000 B.C.; remains of Indus Valley Civilization and Harappan culture have been found in it. Its original inhabitants (like Drawid, Kinner, Dasa and Dasyns) were subdued by the Aryans, the new settlers from Punjab region. Ancient invaders, who came from near and far through the ages (e.g. Nanda, Greek, Maurya, Shunga, Indo-Greek, Yaudheya, Kushana, Gupta, White Huns, Yasodharman, Vardhana, Maukhari, Rajputs-Pundir, Chandela, Muktapida, Ayuddhas, Gurjara-Pratihara, Palas etc.), have left legacies and their descendants in the region have first or last names that reflect these historical (and at times also mythological, e.g. Suryavanshi/Chandravanshi) kinships.
On the basis of extant meager evidence, some sketchy accounts of these periods may be pieced together as ‘history’, for which reference may be made to the article on Saharanpur division. Historical accounts are better documented from the start of the medieval period that covers Ghaznavid, Kalachuri, Gahadvala, Chauhan, Ghorid/Turkic-Sultanate, Mogul dynasties etc.
After the early destabilising Central Asian Turkic invasions (1018–1033 A.D.) through the lands of present Saharanpur region – which has been a part of the westerly ‘highway’, since ancient times, to attack Delhi and the eastern lands beyond – this region was invaded and ruled by many others successively, most notable among them being Bhoja Paramara, Lakshmikarna Kalachuri, Chandra Dev Gahadvala and the Chauhans, who ruled it till the establishment of Delhi Sultanate (1192–1526 A.D.).
During the Mughal period, Akbar the Great (1542-1605) made Saharanpur a sarkar (administrative unit) under the Province of Delhi. He bestowed the Jagir of Saharanpur upon Saha Rana Veer Singh – a Jain nobleman in his court – who, according to one tradition, laid the foundation of the present city at the site of an army cantonment; the nearest settlements at that time were Shekhpura and Malhipur. Raja Rana Veer Singh’s Saharanpur was a walled city, with four gates: the Sarai Gate, the Mali Gate, the Buria Gate and the Lakhi Gate; Nakhasa Bazar, Shah Behlol, Rani Bazar and Lakhi Gate were inhabited localities in this walled city of Saharanpur. The ruins of Ranveer Singh’s fort can still be seen in the Chaudharian locality of Saharanpur. He also built a temple in Muhallah Chaundhariyan.
Marathas were ousted by the British East India Company, which occupied the region of Saharanpur in 1803; it also included the present Muzaffarnagar and Haridwar districts. Saharanpur passed firmly into the hands of British invaders in 1804, when they had eliminated the Maratha resistance and suppressed the frequent Sikh attackers completely. When the British usurped the vast holdings of Raja Dayal Singh Gujjar, a local uprising by the Gujjars took place in 1813, but the British suppressed it with a heavy hand. Local chiefs planned a collective revolt in 1824, but the plan leaked and the movement was crushed, again ruthlessly.
Economy Of Saharanpur
Saharanpur is a flourishing business city: an important regional centre of wholesale and retail trade, particularly in grain, timber and textiles. Its grain market receives the bumper agricultural produce of the Doab region and the massive wholesale market (Anaaj Mandi), for grains and other agricultural produce, is located on Chilkana Road.
The timber market traditionally receives supplies from the extensive northern hilly forest regions to support the local wood carving cottage industry and other demands. The description of Saharanpur’s economy is incomplete without mentioning the contribution of the wooden handicrafts industry, which is the basis of livelihood for half of the population and source of recognition globally. Beautiful art and utilitarian woodwork objects are displayed and sold in the sprawling market from near Ambala Road up to Chilkana Road. The founding father of wooden handicraft industry in Saharanpur was Atta Hussain, an ancestor of the present S.M.Imam M.Ikram family, still active in this handicraft. In the last few decades, the Punjabi Market and Kamboh Katehra market have become famous for their high volume of textile trade. Hosiery has become a significant cottage industry, supplying goods to Ludhiana market, other nearby cities and Uttarakhand’s markets.
Historically, the common householder’s market is centred in the compact area around the landmark Jama Masjid. Within a radius of less than half a kilometre around it, a network of narrow roads is lined with groups of shops selling practically all the commodities, right from jewellery to groceries.
Modern show rooms, retail outlets of upper end branded goods and branches of several major banks are located in the up scale Court Road market, near the city’s Civil Court and the Collectorate offices. However, the city does not boast yet of any ultra modern Shopping Malls, catering to the tastes of high-fashion sophisticated buyers.
A fascinating spectacle is the weekly Mangal Bazar (Tuesday Market) that springs up on the long road of popular Nehru Market and around, when the city’s shops are closed for the weekly holiday; it is literally an ‘open air mall’ of the poor. Every thinkable item of household needs, tools needed for various trades, simple appliances and their parts are available; the quality and price are aimed at the lower end customers. The crowd that throngs this market has to be seen to be believed.
A multinational cigarette manufacturing company, the Indian Tobacco Company (ITC Limited) previously know as the Anglo-American Tobacco company or Imperial Tabaco Company, is located in Saharanpur. This factory was built in the 1930s by Baba Shib Dayal Bedi. He also was the Municipal Commissioner of Saharanpur during this period. Star Paper Mill, Sugar Mill, Hardboard Mill, Textile Mill and Wood-seasoning Mill are other important industrial enterprises located in the city.
Education Of Saharanpur
The Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (IIT Roorkee), one of the Ivy League engineering institutions in India, has a campus at Saharanpur. Engineering Courses in Paper Technology,Polymer Science and Process Engineering are offered at this campus. The campus is located on Paper Mill Road with Star Paper Mills, Saharanpur on one side and the Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute (CPPRI), (which is one of its kind institute in Asia), on the other side.
In 2000, an new engineering college was introduce with name
Shobhit Institute of Engineering & TECHNOLOGY(COLLEGE CODE-103).
In 2008, an new engineering college was introduce with name
DOON COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHONLOGY(COLLEGE CODE-426).
Bharat Tibbiya College, Saharanpur conducts a diploma course in Unani Medicine.sourabh Rohila S/O sri Manjeet Singh did his higher education from Australia. now he is bangalore. Mazahir-ul-Uloom, Saharanpur, the famous seminary, imparts advanced education in Sunni theology, closely following the Darul Uloom, Deoband school and is at par with it in academic ranking. It is located at Arabi Madrassa.
Several colleges, affiliated to Meerut University, conduct university level courses in a number of arts and science subjects.
However, in relation to the size, population and economic strength of Saharanpur District and in comparison to the educational facilities in neighbouring districts, the city lacks adequate infrastructure for advanced education and research. It is being felt as an anomaly that needs expeditious rectification by establishing a university in the city, with its own engineering college, covering a wide gamut of courses, and medical colleges for allopathy and ayurveda education. These feelings have heightened further since the loss of academically well endowed Roorkee city, due to its separation from Saharanpur district and merger in the newly formed Uttarakhand state in September 2000.
A project to establish a medical college is being implemented now and (as on 2009), civil works for the proposed ‘Master Kanshi Ram Allopathic Government College’ are under way near Saharanpur city.