Mau formerly Mau Nath Bhanjan nearly 90 km from Varanasi is the powerhouse of textile weavers in Eastern UP, India. It is a small industrial town on the banks of Ghaghra (Saryu). The Tamasa river flows through the city. The credit of converting this city to a district goes to the (late) Kalpnath Rai (former MP for Ghosi). In 1960s it was the biggest supplier of a plant called plash.
Geography Of Mau
Mau is situated on the fertile plains of the Ganga – Ghaghara doab. It lies between 83° 17′ to 84° 52′ East & 24° 47′ to 26°17′ North. At its north, Ghaghara river is on the border, Ghazipur district is on the south, Ballia district is on the east & Azamgarh district is on the west side. This district represents geographical characteristics of mid Gangetic plain. “Khachari” and “Khadar” are types of soil found in the areas of north of Azamgarh – Ballia Road. In some high places “Bangar” soil is also found. In the southern part of the district, river flow is absent, due to which that area has Bangar type of soil, which is not fertile. The river system of the district is dominated by the Tons River and its tributary Choti Sarju. The Ghaghara River forms the northern border of the district.
The main means of irrigation in the district are tubewells. Ponds are used mainly for fishing and bird sanctuary purposes. In Mau “Pakari Piua” pond have 1.7 km breadth and 32 km length. It also has two big ponds (Tal)one Ratoy tal near Madhuban and Garha tal near Ratanpura. Ground water can be obtained from 15 to 20 meters depth. Ground water is used for drinking purposes. Farmers use tubewell for historical reasons.
History Of Mau
District MAU has a very rich historical background from the protohistorical period. uring the reign of Sher Shah Suri, the famous emperor who had defeated Humayun, visited Kolhuvavan (Madhuban) to meet the great Sufi saint Syed Ahmad Wadva. Mahvani, one of the daughters of Sher Shah was settled permanently near the dargah of Syed Sahab. Various developmental works were undertaken by Sher Shah Suri during his reign for economic development of the Mau region. After Humayun had retaken India, mention is given in the historical book of Jiyaudeen Barni saying that his son Akbar the Great passed through Mau, on his way towards Allahabad.But here too much just made in red oil, there are different names such as red oil made, Herbleen Lal Tel, Noorani Lal Tel, Sanp wale Baba Lal Tel and lots of red oil are made. During the construction of a military base and the Shahi Masjid, a large number of laborers and artisans came with the Mughal Army. They, the weavers, etc. had originally come from Iran, Afghanistan and Turkey; they settled there permanently.
During the period of India’s struggle for freedom the residents of Mau gave their full support to the movement. Mahatma Gandhi came to Dohrighat on 3 October 1939 during the 3rd salt law breaking movement; many persons of Mau actively took part.
During the 1942 Quit India Movement a mob had collected in outrage of an action by a Madhuban Police Station Officer; Collector Navlate was present there, he ordered his men to open fire on the mob killing and injuring many people. In memory of the shaheeds of that day a monument was built on the site were the shaheeds had made the ultimate sacrifice. In the 1970s and early 1980s many people (like Jharkhandey Rai, Tejpal Singh) worked hard for social empowerment in Mau. Mau was an important township of Azamgarh district before its creation as a district itself. On 19 November 1988 it was made a district, largely due to the efforts of the Late Kalpnath Rai (MP Ghosi) and Late Maulana Habibur Rahman Nomani, MP Rajya Sabha. The local language of Mau is peculiar to the area as it includes the dialects of Bhojpuri Persian, Turkish and Irani. The main Industrial setup here is of cloth making by powerloom due to the presence of a large number of weavers in the district. Sari, Lungi and other clothes being prepared there are exported to various states of India and also to various countries. A village in Mau called Sonadih is famous for dhieru’s way of studying in Baba Thanidas Ji Temple.
Economy Of Mau
1981 to 1991 Census the Population of the district is 1,445,000
The decennial rate of population growth during period 1981-91 is 28.33%.
19.9% of District population resides in Urban area.
According to 1991 census sc/st population is 319,000 which is 22% of total population.
Population density of the district is 844/km2
In 1997-98 total foodgrain production is 372,000 tonnes
Net irrigated area is 1,120 km2 & gross irrigated area is 1,530 km2
Percentage of electrified villages is 88.1% in the year 1997-98.
Per capita electricity consumption is 162 units in the year 1998-99.
In 1998 -99 total number of rural & small industrial units are 61526.
Total number of Handloom/Powerloom units are 58381 in 1998-99.
Percentage of Literacy in the district is approx. 68% in 2006.
Percentage of Workers in the district, according to 1991 census, is 33.2%.
Number of dependents per hundred workers is 201.
According to 1991 census, 68.3% of total workers were directly involved in agriculture.
In 1996-97 per cultivator net sown area was 6,500 square metres
CD ratio in 98-99 is 11.96.
Length of metalled road per 100,000 population is 57 km.
In 1998-99 teacher-Students ratio is
No. of Allopathic Hospitals/Dispensary/PHCs per 100,000 population is 3.7
Telephone connection per 100,000 population 275
Nowadays the condition of Mau is much worse as a Business because there is just the business of the “SAREE” which is no more profit, so people are facing lot of difficulties. If there is a job people do, perhaps, but one thing due to the problems facing people, if there comes big companies could probably solve the problem.