Mathura is a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located approximately 60 km north of Agra, and 150 km south of Delhi; about 12 kilometers from the town of Vrindavan and 20 kilometers from Govardhan. It is the administrative centre of Mathura District of Uttar Pradesh. During the ancient period, Mathura was an economic hub, located at the junction of important caravan routes.
Mathura is the birthplace of Lord Krishna at the centre of Braj or Brij-bhoomi, called Krishna janma-bhoomi, literary ‘Krishna’s birth place’. The Keshav Dev temple was built in ancient times on the site of Krishna’s legendary birthplace (an underground prison). As per the epics Mahabharata and Bhagavata Purana, Mathura was the capital of the Surasena Kingdom, ruled by Kansa the maternal uncle of Krishna.
Mathura is also famous as one of the first two centres of production for images of the Buddha, the other being Gandhara in present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan. Human images of the Buddha began to appear at approximately the same time in both centres in the 1st Century AD but can be distinguished from one another as the Gandharan images are very clearly Graeco-Roman in inspiration with the Buddha wearing wavy locks tucked up into a chignon and heavier toga-like robes. The Buddha figurines produced in Mathura more closely resemble some of the older Indian male fertility gods and have shorter, curlier hair and lighter, more translucent robes.
History Of Mathura
Ancient Indian (Bharata) cities and Places (Title and location names are in English.)
Krishna temple in Mathura.
Mathura has an ancient history As per the ASI plaque at Mathura museum, the city is mentioned in the oldest epic Ramayana. In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna, slays a demon called Lavanasura and claims the land. Afterwards the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded, Madhupura and later Mathura. The demon that Shatrughan killed in Ramayana, Lavanasura was the progeny of a devout king Madhu who gets Lord Shiva’s Trident in a boon in the Puranas. The Puranas ascribe the founding of the city to Ayu, the son of Pururavas and the celestial nymph Urvashi. The city might also have got its name from a famous Yadav king Madhu who reigned around 1600 BC.
In the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of the Surasena mahajanapada, The city was later ruled by the Maurya empire (4th to 2nd centuries BC) and the Sunga dynasty (2nd century BC). It may have come under the control of Indo-Greeks some time between 180 BC and 100 BC. It then reverted to local rule before being conquered by the Indo-Scythians during the 1st century BC. Archaeological evidence seems to indicate that, by 100 BC, there was a group of Jains living in Mathura [Bowker]. Mathuran art and culture reached its zenith under the Kushan dynasty which had Mathura as one of their capitals, the other being Purushapura (Peshawar). The dynasty had kings with the name of Kadphises, Kanishka, Huvishka and Vasudeva. All the Kushans were patrons of Buddhism except Vasudeo, mentioned on coins as Bazodeo. Kanishka even hosted the third Buddhist council, the first two being hosted by Ajatshatru and Ashoka the Great. The headless statue of Kanishka is in the Mathura museum.
Megasthenes, writing in the early 3rd century BC, mentions Mathura as a great city under the name (Méthora).
The Indo-Scythians (aka Sakas or Shakas) conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60 BCE. Some of their satraps were Hagamasha and Hagana, who were in turn followed by the Saka Great Satrap Rajuvula.
The findings of ancient stone inscriptions in Maghera, a town 17 km from Mathura, provide historical artifacts that provide more details into this era of Mathura. The 3 line text in these inscriptions are in Brahmi script and were translated as “In the 116th year of the Greek kings…”
The Mathura lion capital, an Indo-Scythian sandstone capital in crude style, dated to the 1st century CE, describes in kharoshthi the gift of a stupa with a relic of the Buddha, by Queen Nadasi Kasa, the wife of the Indo-Scythian ruler of Mathura, Rajuvula. The capital also mentions the genealogy of several Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura.
Rajuvula apparently eliminated the last of the Indo-Greek kings, Strato II, around 10 CE, and took his capital city, Sagala.
The Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions attest that Mathura fell under the control of the Sakas. The inscriptions contain references to Kharaosta Kamuio and Aiyasi Kamuia. Yuvaraja Kharostes (Kshatrapa) was the son of Arta as is attested by his own coins. Arta is stated to be brother of King Moga or Maues. Princess Aiyasi Kambojaka, also called Kambojika, was the chief queen of Shaka Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula.
Kamboja presence in Mathura is also verified from some verses of epic Mahabharata which are believed to have been composed around this period. This may suggest that Sakas and Kambojas may have jointly ruled over Mathura and Uttar Pradesh. It is revealing that Mahabharata verses only attest the Kambojas and Yavanas as the inhabitants of Mathura, but do not make any reference to the Sakas. Probably, the epic has reckoned the Sakas of Mathura among the Kambojas (Dr J. L. Kamboj) or else have addressed them as Yavanas, unless the Mahabharata verses refer to the previous period of invasion occupation by the Yavanas around 150 BCE.
The Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura are sometimes called the “Northern Satraps”, as opposed to the “Western Satraps” ruling in Gujarat and Malwa. After Rajuvula, several successors are known to have ruled as vassals to the Kushans, such as the “Great Satrap” Kharapallana and the “Satrap” Vanaspara, who are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath, and dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka (c 130 CE), in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushans.
Mathura served as one of the Kushan Empire’s two capitals from the first to the third centuries. The Mathura Museum has the largest collection of redstone sculptures in Asia, depicting many famous Buddha figurines. Fa Hien mentions the city, as a centre of Buddhism about A.D. 400; while his successor Hsuan Tsang, who visited the city in 634 AD, which he mentions as Mot’ulo, and writes that it contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Brahmanical temples. Later, he went east to Thanesar, Jalandhar in the eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and then Mathura, on the Yamuna river.
The city was sacked and many of its temples destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018 and again by Sikandar Lodhi, who earned the epithet of But Shikan, the destroyer of idols. The Keshav Dev temple was partially destroyed by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, who built the city’s Jami Masjid (Friday mosque) on the same site, re-using many of the temple’s stones. It was won over from the Mughals by the Jat kings of Bharatpur but subsequently the area was passed on to the Marathas. The main Krishna shrine is presently the Dwarkadeesh temple, built in 1815 by Seth Gokuldas Parikh, Treasurer of Gwalior.
Geography Of Mathura
Mathura is located at 27°30’N 77°41’E? / ?27.5°N 77.68°E? / 27.5; 77.68. It has an average elevation of 174 metres (570 feet).
Economy Of Mathura
Today Mathura is situated on very important Road and Train routes in India. The famous Delhi-Agra highway (NH-2, National Highway -2) runs close to Mathura, providing the city with great connectivity. The city also houses a large and important train station; Mathura Junction. The city is on both the Delhi-Mumbai and Delhi-Chennai train routes.
One of the major contributors in the economy of Uttar Pradesh are Mathura Industries. Mathura Refinery located in the city is one of the biggest oil refineries of Asia. This oil refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation is a highly technologically advanced oil refinery. Silver polishing industry is another industry that is flourishing gradually. Textile printing industry that includes both Sari-printing and Fabric dyeing is another major industry of the region. Apart from these other industries are water tap manufacturing units and other decorative and household items.
Tourism is still in a development stage in the city. There are quite a few places to visit in Mathura and its surroundings, most of them linked to the Hindu heritage. Major places are listed here.
There is no commercial airport in Mathura. However, Mathura is driving distance from Delhi and Agra, both of which are on India’s air map.
1. Major tourist sites in Mathura
3. Jai gurudev Ashram
4. Dwarikadheesh Temple
5. Durvasa Rishi Ashram
6. Kans Tila
7. Sri Keshavji Gaudiya Matha
8. Vishram Ghat, a bath and worship place on the banks of river Yamuna is the main ghat in Mathura, central to 25 other ghats.
9. Bhooteshwar Mahadev Mandir
Education Of Mathura
Mathura is home to the Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Veterinary University, the first of its kind in the state and the fourth in the country to be made independent veterinary universities. The University is located on the Mathura-Agra road, about 5 km from Mathura Junction. The main campus of the University is spread over a land area of 782.32 acres (3.1659 km2) in Mathura Cantt and about 1,400 acres (6 km2) at Madhurikund, about 20 km from the main campus. in modern time mathura is hub of engineering collages. 40 enginnering & management colleges hasbeen established in mathura up to 12-12-2009. 18 engineering collages has also resistered for approvel for aicte on yamuna expressway(it connects noida to agra)
1. Pandit Dindayal veterinary university
2. Uttar Pradesh Technical University Affiliated Colleges
3. Hindustan College of Science & Technology, Mathura- 281122 Mathura
4. G.L.A. Institute of Technology & Managemnt,Mathura-281001 UP Mathura
5. B.S.A.College of Engineering & Technology, Mathura – 281004 Mathura
6. Eshan College of Engg, Mathura
7. Rajeev Academy for Pharmacy, Mathura – 281001 Mathura
8. Hindustan Institute of Management & Computer Studies,, Mathura – 281122
9. Sachdeva Institute of Technology, Mathura – 281122 Mathura
10. Rajeev Academy for Technology & Management, Mathura, 281001 U.P. Mathura
11. Ishwar Chand Vidya Sagar Institute of Technology, Mathura Mathura
12. G.L. A. Institute of Phamaceutical Research, Mathura-281406 UP Mathura
13. G.L.A. Institute of Business Management,Mathura – 281406 Mathura
14. Sanjay Institute of Engineering and Management, Mathura – 281406 Mathura
15. Sanjay College of Pharmacy, Mathura Mathura
16. Institute of Engineering & Management,Mathura Mathura
17. S.M College of Pharmacy, Mathura Mathura
18. Ishwar Chand Vidya Sagar Institute of Pharmacy,Mathura
19. Ishwar Chand Vidya Sagar Institute of Management , Mathura
20. R.S.Sikarwar College of Pharmacy, Mathura
21. Dhanwantri Institute of Pharmacy, Mathura
22. D .C. S College of Pharmacy, Mathura
23. Ganeshi Lal Narayandas Agarwal Institute of Technology, Mathura Mathura
24. Nikhil Institute of Engineering & Management, Mathura Mathura
25. Bon Maharaj Engineering College, Mathura Mathura
26. Excel Institute of Management & Technology, Mathura Mathura
27. Excel School of Business, Mathura
28. P.K. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, MATHURA
29. SHRI GIRRAJ COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT, MATHURA
30. G.L. BAJAJ INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, MATHURA
31. R.S.S. COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, MATHURA
32. MURLI MANOHAR AGRAWAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, MATHURA
33. Shree jee Baba Institute of Professional Studies, Mathura
34. BABA KADHERA SINGH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, MATHURA
35. Shri Giriraj Maharaj College, Mathura
36. Shri Giriraj Maharaj Institute of Management, Mathura
37. Aashlar Business School, Mathura
38. Unnati Management College, Mathura
39. Al Haj A R Sani Institute of Management and Technology, Mathura
40. DIP & proff. & Degree Colleges &&Intermediate Colleges
41. RSM ITM & DIP college Dauhli pyau, Mathura
42. Baba saheb DIP college, Mathura
43. Krishna ITM & ITM college, Mathura
44. Heights comp. & proff course, Mathura
45. Aptech comp. courses dampier nagar, Mathura
46. NIIT comp. courses dampier nagaer, Mathura
47. Shree ji baba VP goverdhan road, Mathura
48. SMU proff. studies maholi road, Mathura
49. Gauri Faundation proff. studies maholi road, Mathura
50. APJ proff. college Masani, Mathura
51. Kishori Raman Degree College, Mathura
52. Giraj Maharaj Dgree College, Mathura
53. BSA degree College, Mathura
54. sachdeva institute of education, Mathura
55. Gyan deep shiksha bharti sr.sec. school, Mathura
56. Kendriya Vidyalaya – Cantt.(KV No. 1), Mathura
57. Kendriya Vidyala refinery nagar (KV No. 2), Mathura
58. Kendriya Vidyalaya – Baad (KV No. 3), Mathura
59. Faiz-E-Aam School, Mathura
60. Ratanlal Phool Katori girls school, Mathura
61. Shree ji Baba boys school, Mathura
62. Sacred Heart Convent, Mathura
63. Army School, Mathura
64. Amar Nath Vidya Ashram, Mathura
65. Shriji Baba School, Mathura
66. Ramanlal Shorawala School, Mathura
67. St. Dominic’s School, Mathura
68. Delhi Public School, Mathura Refinery, Mathura
69. sofia public school,raya, Mathura
70. rocksword public school,raya, Mathura
71. Kishori Raman Inter College, Mathura
72. Kishori Raman Girls Inter College, Mathura
73. Laxmi Raman Acharya Public School, Mathura
74. Kishori Raman Montessori School, Mathura
75. Champa Agrawal Intermediate College, Mathura
76. Champa Agrawal Bal Mandir, Mathura
77. DC vaidic inter college aryanagar gaju raya, Mathura
78. rastriya inter college raya, Mathura
79. premlata girls inter college raya, Mathura
80. premlata girls degree college raya, Mathura
81. lokamndas inter college, ayerakheda,raya, Mathura
82. adarsh inter college,ayerakheda raya, Mathura
83. CDS degree college raya, Mathura