Ghazipur is a city/town and a municipal corporation and headquarter of Ghazipur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Ghazipur Division and Sub-division. Back to the past, it was a place of administration under Guptas dynasty too than earlier as described in Hindu Mythology, as kingdom of King Vishwamitra, who later changed into saint and popularly known as Maharshi Vishwamitra.
Ghazipur is famous for its opium factory, which is the largest legal opium factory in the world started by British East India Company in 1820. It’s also home to handloom weaving and a perfume industry. The town is an important agricultural market. Lord Cornwallis, governor-general of British India, died in Ghazipur and is buried there. The town is very close to the UP-Bihar border. The local language at the place is Bhojpuri. Ghazipur borders the important religious city of Varanasi and is situated about 70 km East of Varanasi.
History Of Ghazipur
Ghazipur was covered with dense forest during the Vedic era and it was a place for ashrams of saints during that period. The place is related to the Ramayana period. Maharshi Jamadagni, the father of Maharshi Parashurama is said to have resided here. The famous Gautama Maharishi and Chyavana were given teaching and sermon here in ancient period. Lord Buddha gave his first sermon in Sarnath, which is not far from the here. The Aurihar region of Ghazipur became the main centre of teachings of Lord Buddha. Many stupas and pillars are the main evidence of that period. Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang visited this area and has described this place as Chanchu “Kingdom of the Lord of battles.”
Ghazipur is fortunate enough that the first scientific society of India was established here in 1862 by Mahatma Jain for propagating modern Western knowledge of science, technology and industry. It was a departure from the past in the sense that education made a paradigm shift from traditional humanisties and related disciplines to the new field of science and agriculture which ultimately paved the necessary background for the establishment of present Technical Education and Research Institute (TERI), a post-graduate college, in the city.
The area is home to many well known freedom fighters. The hero of first war of independence (which is also referred as Sepoy Mutiny) Mangal Pandey belonged to this area (now part of Ballia). The famous Raju Baxi revolt is also associated with this place where the farmers revolted against the British and set fire to several indigo godowns. This place has played a significant role in the Indian National movement. During the Home Rule movement and the Quit India movement people of Ghazipur took part courageously and fearlessly. During Quit India movement, a group of freedom fighters of Sherpur village under the leadership of Dr. Shiv Pujan Rai hoisted the Tricolour at Mr. Doshi Parashuram Rai took part in the India movement.
Geography Of Ghazipur
Ghazipur is located at 25°35’N 83°34’E? / ?25.58°N 83.57°E? / 25.58; 83.57. It has an average elevation of 62 metres (203 feet). The city of Ghazipur is located in the middleGanges valley of North India, in the Eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh, along the left is bank of the Ganges river. It is the headquarters of the Ghazipur district. The city nearly stretches parallel to the river Ganges. Its neighbouring cities are Varanasi, Jaunpur, Ballia, Mau, Chandauli and Azamgarh. Initially Ballia and Mau were part of Ghazipur district but latter were made separate districts. Being located in the plains of Ganges the soil is alluvial type and is fertile because of low level floods continually replenish the soil. This makes agriculture the most important profession of the people. The town is predominantly agrarian and so is the economy. The district is divided into four major sub parts Zamania, Mohammadabad, Saidpur and Jakhania.
Ghazipur has a humid subtropical climate with large variations between summer and winter temperatures. Summers are long, from early April to October, with intervening monsoon seasons. Cold waves from the Himalayan region cause temperatures to dip across the city in the winter from December to February. The temperature ranges between 32°C – 46°C (90°F – 115°F) in the summers, and 5°C – 15°C (41°F – 59°F) in the winters. The average annual rainfall is 1110 mm (44 in). Fog is common in the winters, while hot dry winds, called loo, blow in the summers.
The city is relatively free from air pollution. Through a combination of water pollution, new constructions of upstream dams, and increase in the local temperature, the water level of the Ganges has recently gone down significantly, and small islands have become visible in the middle of the river.
Rivers in District Ganges, Gomati, Gangai, Beson, Mangai, Bhainsai, Tons and Karmanasha.
Economy Of Ghazipur
The city has sound agriculture base and reasonably good infrastructure, yet the industrial potential is low. The lack of enterprise and technical knowledge of local people may be the major constraints in industrial growth. Ghazipur has long been famous for the manufacture of perfumes especially rose water (Ghazipuri Gulabjal )and Attar of roses (Rose oil). A local firm was awarded a medal for the quality of product in British empire exhibition in London in the last century. Now this industry is facing gradual decline due to the shrinkage of cultivation of perfume bearing plants. Sugar industry was important to this region but now there are few factories left.
The manufacturing of saltpeter is done in Saidpur. Cloth weaving is centered in Bahariabad. There are 47 registered factory under section 1948. But scenario have change from last decade, a multi productive agro manufacturing unit M/s Sukhbhir Agro, an alcohol manufacturing unit M/s Lords Distillery, a Homoeopathic Medicines Manufacturing unit M/s M.D.Homoeo Lab. Pvt. Ltd., Maharajganj, Ghazipur worked successfully in district. These companies are provide many employment opportunity.
The manufacture of rice, agriculture goods, furniture, leather, footwear, utensils, steel trunk, almirah, khandsari, candles and handlooms are the main small scale industry of the city.
Village and cottage industry include mostly the handicraft handed down from generation to generation like gur making, village oil industry, Leather tanning, pottery etc. Opium and Alkaloid Works, a Government of India enterprise, specializes in manufacture of excise opium and export opium. It is the largest of its kind in the country.
Education Of Ghazipur
- Post Graduate College, Ghazipur
- Swami Sahajanand P G College, Ghazipur
- Khardeeha Degree College, Khardeeha
- Shahid Smarak Govt. Degree College, Mohamamadabad
- Degree College, Malikpura
- Rajkiya Degree College, Saidpur
- Rajkiya Mahila Degree College, Ghazipur
- Samata Degree College, Sadat
- M G Sati Smarak Mahavidyalaya, Garua Makasudpur
- Mahant Ramashraya Das Degree College, Bhurkura
- Hindu Degree College, Zamania
- G.M.unani & Ayurvedic Medical College ,Saheri Ghazipur
- Technical Education and Research Institute Ghazipur
- Industrial Training Institute, Ghazipur
- Ghazipur Polytechnic, Ghazipur